Ragas and Musical Instruments in Pushtimarg
This article discusses some of the important points about "Haveli Sangeet". In pushtimarg, Mainly Shree Mahaprabhuji and Shree Gusaiji set the Raag, Bhog and shringar for Shree Thakurji.The "Raag" means Music and Pad sahitya meant to entertain shree Thakurji which may depict
1. Shreeji's Nitya Leela (Bal, Kishor leela etc.)
2. Shreeji's/Shree Vallabh and Vallabhkul's Aashraya pad
3. Shree yamunaji's Pad
4. Badhai pads/Utsav Pads of Shreeji/Shree Vallabh/Shree vallabhkul
5. Hori/Dhammar/Vasant Pads
6. Pads narrating the Swaroop of Five elements of Pushtimarg (Shreeji, Shree vallabh,Shree Yamunaji, Shree Girirajji and Shree Vraj bhumi)
The above pads are sung in different Ragas and Taals with different Intruments.There are 36 Raagas and 36 intruments mainly sung and used in pushitmarg repectively.
Each Raga and Musical instrument has got a particular Mood and time to sing.Giving some examples
Raag Ramkali, Lalit, Malkaus, Todi, devgandhar, Bibhas,Bhairav: Early morning (First Prahar) during Mangala
Raag Bilaval, Asavari, Saarang: Late morning. Generally suring Shringar, Gwal, Rajbhog time.
Raag Purvi: Utthapan
Raag Gauri, Hammera : Bhog Sandhya
Raag Kanharo,Malav: Shayan
The above listing is not an exhaustive listing.
In pushtimarg, Dhrupad,Dhammar is the main style of singing but there are other styles like Alapchari, Hori Rasiyas, etc.
The primary musical instruments used in pushitmarg are Taanpur, Mrudang (pakhavaj) and Zhanj. But the list is not restricted to above.
We will look in greater details of 36 Ragas and 36 Musical Instruments in pushtimarg in this article.
Surdasji, one of the Ashtachaap bhakta kavis, in his "Sura Saravali" has created a kirtan depicting 36 Raagas known. Below is the kirtan
Description of Shyam-Shyama Krida in Sura Saravali
"Lalita Lalit Bajaay Rijhavata Madhur Been Kar Leene
Jaan Prabhaat Raag Pancham Shat Malkaus ras Bheene ||
Sur Hindol Megha Malav Puni Saarang sur Nat Jaan
Sur Saavat Bhupali Iman Karat Kanharo Gaan ||
Uncha Adani Ke Sur Suniyat Nipat Nayaki Leen
Karat Vihaar Madhur Kedaro Sakal Suran Sukhdeen ||
Sorath gaud Malhaar Sohavan Bhairav Lalit Bajayo
Madhur Bibhas Sunat Bilaval Sampati Ati Sukh Paayo ||
Dev Giri Deshakh dev puni Gauri Shree sukh Baas
Jet Shree Aaru purvi Todi Aasavari Sukh Raas ||
Ramkali Gunakali Ketaki Sur Sughrai Gaye
Jaijaiwanti Jagatmohani sur Soo Been Bajaye ||
Suaa Saras Milat Preetam Sukh Sindhuvar Ras Manyo
Jaan Prabhaat prabhaati Gayo Bhor Bhayo Dou Janyo || "
The Musical Instruments mentioned in Sura Saravali and Sura Sagar
"Panchami Panch Shabda Kari Saaje Saji Vaaditra Apaar
Runjh Muraj Daf taal Bansuri Jhalaar Ko Jhankaar ||
Baajat Been Rabab Kinnari amrut Kundali Yantra
Sur Surmandal Jal Tarang mil kar Mohani mantra ||
Vividh Pakhavaj Aavaj Sanchit Bicha Bicha Madhur Upang
sur Sahnayi Saras Saarangi Upajat Taan tarang ||
Kanstaal Kattaal Bajavat Shrung madhur muhchang
Madhur Khanjari Pataha Pranav mil sukh pavat Ratbhang ||
Nipatan Keri Shravanan Dhuni Suni Dhir Na Rahe Brajbaal
Madhur Naad Murali Ko Sun Ke Bhete Shyam Tamaal ||
From the above padas of surdas, we get the listing of 36 ragas and 36 Musical instruments used in pushtimarg.
From other padas of surdas we also get other names like
Jantri, Sankha, Dimdim, Changa, Tar, Tanbur, Madanbheri, Swara mandal, Bheri, Girgiri (gagari ?)
Thus, our marg has got such a rich heritage of Raagas and Musical Instruments.